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The Ghost in the Box – References

About the Authors


Judith Alyce Green, Ph.D.

Judith Green received her B. A. in Psychology from the University of Chicago and her M. A. from the Institute of Child Behavior and Development, the University of Iowa. She spent two years on research projects at Harvard University and Boston University School of Medicine before joining the Voluntary Controls Program, The Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas.

Dr. Green worked for eight years at The Foundation as a researcher in clinical biofeedback training, director of biofeedback seminars, and biofeedback therapist. She conducted her doctoral dissertation research at The Foundation on brainwave feedback training for seizure reduction in epilepsy. She received her doctorate in 1976 from The Union Graduate School, Columbus, Ohio.

Judith is known for her work with the Voluntary Controls Program team, headed by her parents, Elmer and Alyce Green, that pioneered in the clinical use of biofeedback training. She has given numerous workshops throughout the country on the principles and applications of biofeedback training with adults and children. Dr. Green has published several articles on biofeedback applications, and is co-author of the popular film “Biofeedback: The Yoga of the West” that features explorations in self regulation at The Menninger Foundation and in India.

In 1979, Judith begin private practice biofeedback therapy at the Biofeedback and Stress Management Group in Boulder, and Biofeedback and Psychotherapy Associates in Greeley, Colorado. In 1983, she left the Boulder group to become an instructor in biofeedback training at the Aims Biofeedback Institute, Aims Community College in Greeley. Judith is currently in private practice in Greeley, and is the Director of the clinical biofeedback training for the clinical internship program of the Aims Biofeedback Institute.


Robert Shellenberger, Ph.D.

Robert Shellenberger is a licensed psychologist and certified biofeedback therapist. He received his doctorate from Northwestern University in 1969. Bob was a pioneer in the development of biofeedback training in an educational setting, promoting the establishment of courses and a biofeedback laboratory at Aims Biofeedback Institute, Aims Community College in 1975. Today the Biofeedback Learning Center includes ten training rooms, one group training room, two stress profiling rooms, over 150 biofeedback instruments, and five microcomputers. Bob was also instrumental in the creation of a state certified internship training program for biofeedback clinicians. Bob teaches courses on biofeedback and psychotherapy and supervises interns in this program.

Bob has conducted many Workshops on biofeedback training, stress management, and personality styles, and created the workshop “Biofeedback and Psychotherapy” for the Biofeedback Society of America continuing education program.

In 1982, Bob received a grant from the Colorado Commission on Higher Education to conduct research on the reliability and validity of stress profiling at the Aims Biofeedback Institute.

Dr. Shellenberger is the Director of a private clinic, Biofeedback and Psychotherapy Associates, in G;reeley. His work in biofeedback training combines teaching, therapy, and writing. Bob brings to this work a unique background in clinical psychology, phenomenology, and philosophy.





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Campbell, D., & Latimer, P. 1980). Biofeedback in the treatment of urinary retention. Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry. 11, 27-30.

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Carlson, S.G., & Gale, E.N. (1977). Biofeedback in the treatment of long-term TMJ pain. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 2, 161-171.

Carlson, John (1978). Biofeedback as a research tool. Biofeedback Society of America Task Force Report, Denver, Colorado.

Carter, J. & Russell, H. (1984). Results of a long-term federally funded program on biofeedback and learning disabilities. In J. Lubar (Ed.), The use of EEG for diagnosis and treatment of minimal brain dysfunction syndrome and attention deficit disorder in children. Symposium presented at Biofeedback Society of America, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Cerulli, M., Nikoomanesh, P., & Schuster, M. (1979). Progress in biofeedback conditioning for fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology, 76, 742-749.

Chesney, M., & Shehon, J. (1976). A comparison of muscle relaxation and electromyogram biofeedback treatments for muscle contraction headache. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 7, 221-225.

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Cox, D., Freundlich, A., & Meyer, R.G., (1975). Differential effectiveness of electromyograph feedback, verbal relaxation instructions, and medication placebo with tension headaches. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 892-898.

Craig, A. & Cleary, P. (1982). Reduction of stuttering by young male stutterers using EMG feedback. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 7, 241-254.

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Hartje, J. & Axelberg, L. (1984). Biofeedback follow-up data for eight pathologies. Biofeedback Society of America Proceedings, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Hatch, 1. (1982). Controlled group designs in biofeedback research: Ask, “What does the control group control for?” Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 7, 377402.

Hatch, J., & Gatachel, (1981). The role of biofeedback in the operant modification of human heart rate. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 139-167.

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Hickling, E., & Sison, G. (l985). The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with relaxation and biofeedback training. Biofeedback Society of America Proceedings, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Hoelscher, T., & Lichstein, K. (1983). Blood volume pulse biofeedback treatment of chronic cluster headache. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 533-540

Holroyd, K., Andrasik, F., & Noble, J. (1980). A comparison of EMG biofeedback and a credible pseudotherapy in treating tension headache. Behavioral Medicine, 3, 29-38.

Holroyd, K., Penzien, K., Hursey, D., Tobin, D., Rogers, HoIm, J., Marcille, P., Hall, J., & Chila, A. (1984). Change mechanisms in EMG biofeedback training: Cognitive changes underlying improvements in tension headache. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 1039-1053.

Hoon, E.F. (1980). Biofeedback-assisted sexual arousal in females: A comparison of visual and auditory modalities. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5, 175-191.

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Hurd, W., Pegram, V., & Nepomuceno, C. (1980). Comparison of actual and simulated EMG biofeedback in the treatment of hemiplegic patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 59, 73-82.

Hutchings, D.F., & Reinking, R.H. (1976). Tension headaches: What form of therapy is most effective? Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 183-190.

Hyland, M. (1985). Do person variables exist in different ways? American Psychologist, 40, 1003-1010.

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Johnson, W. & Turin, A. (1975). Biofeedback treatment of migraine headache: A systematic case study. Behavior Therapy, 6, 294-397.

Jurish, S. Blanchard, E., Andrasik, F., Teders, S. Neff, D. & Arena, J. (1983). Home-Versus clinic-based treatment of vascular headache. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51,741-751.

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Kappes, B., & Michaud, J. (1978). Contingent vs. noncontingent EMG feedback and hand temperature in relation to anxiety and locus of control. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 3, 51-60.

Kappes, B., & Morris, R. (1982). Thermal baseline patterns on psychiatric patients and staff. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 5, 43-49:

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Keefe, F. (1982). Behavioral assessment and treatment of chronic pain: Current status and future directions. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 896-911.

Keefe, F.J., Surwit, R.s., & Pilon, R. (1981). Collagen vascular disease: Can behavior therapy help? Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 12, 171 – 175.

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Kewman, D., & Roberts, A. H., (1980). Skin temperature biofeedback and migraine headaches. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5, 327-345.

Kiffer, J., Fridlun, A., & Fowler, S. (1981). Effects of alternative control procedures for electromyographic biofeedback relaxation training. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 225-233.

King, A., & Arena, J. (1984). Behavioral treatment of chronic cluster headache in a geriatric patient. Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 9, 201-208.

Kinsman, R.A., O’Banion, K., Robinson, S. & Staudenmayer, H. (1975). Continuous biofeedback and discrete postural verbal feedback in frontalis muscle relaxation training. Psychophysiology, 12, 30-35.

Klinge, V. (1972). Effects of exteroceptive feedback and instructions on control of spontaneous galvanic skin response. Psychophysiology, 9, 305-317.

Kostes, H., Rapaport, I., Glaus, K.D. (1978). Operant conditioning of skin resistance tonic levels. Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 3, 43-50.

Kratochvil, D.W., Carkhuff, R. & Berenson, B. (1969). Cumulative effects of parent and teacher offered levels of facilitative conditions upon indices of student physical, emotional and intellectual functioning. Educational Research, 63, 161-164.

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Kremsdorf, R., Kochanowicz, N., & Costell, S. (1981). Cognitive skills training versus EMG biofeedback in the treatment of tension headaches. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 93-101.

Kristt, D., & Engel, B. (1975). Learned control of blood pressure in patients with high blood pressure. Circulation, 51, 370-378.

Lacroix, J. & Roberts, L. (1978). A comparison of the mechanisms and some properties of instructed sudomotor and cardiac control Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 3, 105-131.

Lang. P.L (1977). Research on the specificity of feedback training: Implications for thc use of biofeedback in the treatment of anxiety and fear. In J. Beatty and H. Legewie (Eds.), Biofeedback and Behavior, 323-330. New York: Plenum Press.

Latimer, P. (1981). Biofeedback and self-regulation in the treatment of diffuse esophageal spasm: A single-case study. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6, 181-189.

Latimer, P., Campbell, D., & Kasperski (1984). A components analysis of biofeedback in the treatment of fecal incontinence. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 9, 311-324.

Laye, R. (1984). Skin temperature biofeedback for Raynaud’s Phenomenon secondary to chain saw operation: A case study. Biofeedback Society of America Proceedings, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Lazarus, R. (1975)A cognitively oriented psychologist looks at biofeedback. American Psychologist, 30, 553-561.

Levee, J., Cohen, 3., & Rickles, W. (1976). Electromyographic biofeedback for relief of tension in the facial and throat muscles of a woodwind musician. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 113-120.

LeVine, W. (1983). Behavioral and biofeedback theapy for a functionally impaired musician: A case report. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 101-107.

Libo, L., & Arnold, G., (1983). Relaxation practice after biofeedback therapy: A long-term follow-up study of utilization and effectiveness. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 217-227. (a)

Libo, L., Arnold, G. (1983). Does training to criterion influence improvement? A follow-up study of EMG and thermal biofeedback. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 6, 397-404 (b)

Libo, L., Arnold, G., Woodside, J., Borden, T. & Hardy, J. (1983). EMO biofeedback for functional bladder-sphincter dyssynergia: A case study. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 243-253.

Love, W., Montgomery, D. & Moellher, T. Working paper no. 1. Unpublished manuscript. Nova University: Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., 1974.

Lubar, J. & Bahler, W. (1976). Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the Sensorimotor rhythm. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 77-104.

Lubar, J., 0., & Lubar, J. F. (1984). Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and Beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 9, 1-23.

Lutz, D., & Holmes, D., (1981). Instructions to change blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure biofeedback: Their effects on diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure and anxiety. Psychosomatic Research, 25, 479-485.

Lynch, J., Paskewitz, D., & Orne, M. ((1974). Some factors in the feedback control of human alpha rhythm. Psychosomatic Medicine, 36., 399-410.

McCanne, T.R., (1983). Changes in autonomic responding to stress after practice at controlling heart rate. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 8, 9-23.

McClelland, D. (1985). Human Motivation. London, England:, Scott Foresman & Co.

McKenzie, R. E., Ebrisman, W. J., Montgomery, P.S., & Barnes, R. H. (1974). The treatment of headache by means of electroencephalographic biofeedback. Headache, 13, 164-172.

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Middaugh, S., Whitehead, W., Burgio, K., & Engel, B. (1985). Biofeedback in treatment of urinary incontinence in stroke patients. Biofeedback Society of America Proceedings, New Orleans, Louisiana.

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[End of References]

Attention: The Ghost in the Box is “Shareware”!
Please Register Your Copy Today

This internet publication of the historic monograph “From the Ghost in the Box to Successful Biofeedback Training” is itself an historic event — the first known publication of a masterpiece previously-published document as “shareware”. 

For years computer software has been published under this “honor system”.  You can download a program for free, try it out, and see if you like it. And, if you continue to use the program, you are honor-bound to send the modest registration fee to the author. 

If you download and read this Internet Edition of GHOST, either the whole book or any one or more of its chapters, and if you allow its message to influence your thinking about Biofeedback, you are asked to submit the modest sum of FIVE DOLLARS directly to the book’s authors, Bob and Judy.  That’s even a bargain, since the original 1986 publication, which is herewith reproduced in its entirety, cost $9.95!  Unfortunately, it has been out-of-print for several years, but would surely cost more if reprinted today.

License.  Payment of the $5.00 registration fee entitles the reader to print one (1) copy of the entire text, or any part of the entire text, for personal use.  Up to ten additional copies may be printed, provided that this notice is always included (once) and each recipient understands that the shareware fee applies to each and every printed copy of the book or any chapter of the book.   Reproduction beyond the scope of this license is a violation of US and International Copyright Laws.

To Register your copy of “Ghost”, print this page and send it with your check or US$ 5.00 cash to:

Bob Shellenberger & Judy Green
c/o Psychology Department
Aims Community College
PO Box 69
Greeley, CO 80632 USA

Dear Bob and Judy:

Thanks for making “The Ghost in the Box” available again. 

Name: _________________________________________

Address: _______________________________________

City/State: ______________________________________

Email Address: __________________________________

Remember, send only one registration per person, regardless of how many chapters you have. 

A revised edition of Ghost is in the planning stages; if you do include your name and address, you will be notified if and when it becomes available. 

A brief description of your professional involvement in biofeedback would be of great interest to the authors. 




Comments, suggestions and criticism are most welcome.  Please feel free to make your suggestions or comments here.  

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